Vol. 16 (2023): Special issue

					View Vol. 16 (2023): Special issue

We are delighted to present this Conference Proceedings of the 7th International Joint Conference on Science and Technology (IJCST) 2023 with theme : “The Innovation Breakthroug in Digital and Disruptive Era”. This year, IJCST is held by Faculty of Social Science and Law Universitas Negeri Manado on October 5th-7th, 2023 in Auditorium Universitas Negeri Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia.

IJCST is an annual international conference, consisting of ICSS and ICST, initiated by 16 universities in Indonesia. ICST is one part of the IJCST event which focuses on the field of Science and Technology. The ICST scope raised in this year is Biological and Environmental Sciences, and Contemporary Technological Innovations. It is attended by scholars, researchers, practitioners, and government to discuss research and practices in science and technological innovations.

Committees Members Steering Committees
  • Prof. Dr. Deitje A. Katuuk, M.Pd (Rector of Universitas Negeri Manado)
  • Recky H. E. Sendouw, SP., MM., Ph.D (Dean of Faculty of Law and Social Sciences)
  • Dr. Theodorus Pangalila, S.Fils., M.Pd (The Conference Chairman)
  • Dr. Isye J. Melo, SH., MH (The Vice Chairman of Conference)
  • Dr. Goinpeace Tumbel, S.Sos., MAP., M.Si (The Vice Chairman of Conference)
  • Jeane Mantiri, S.AB., MAP (The Secretary of Conference)
  • Wissje Wowor, SE (The Financial Treasurer of Conference)
  • Grace S. J. Roeroe, SE., MAP
  • Sam Saroinsong, SH., MH
  • Dr. Agustien Cherly Wereh, SH., MH
  • Dr. Sisca B. Kairupan, M.Si
  • Dr. Meike Imbar, M.Pd
  • Margareth Rantung, SH, MAP
  • Romi Mesra, S.Pd., M.Pd
  • Kristofel Santa, SST, MMT
  • dr. Tierza Undap, Sp.KFR
  • Royke Moningka
  • Prof. Dr. Agustinus P. Irawan, MT (Universitas Tarumanagara Indonesia)
  • Dr. Noorhan Abbas (Leeds University United Kingdom)
  • Dr. Noorul Islam (Kanpur Institute of Technology India)
  • Muhammad Imran Qureshi, Ph.D (Universiti Teknikal, Malaysia)
Published: 2023-10-29


  • The Use Of Social Media And Its Relationship With Vocational School Learning Outcomes

    Alfrina Mewengkang, Keith Ratumbuisang, Hiskia Legesan
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.9946
  • Placemaking as a development strategy for the Paal Likupang Beach tourism area

    Heince Andre Maahury, Djubir Ruslan Edi Kembuan, Ramadhani Asrar, Desty Rara Retna Kalude, Andi Andre Pratama Putra
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.9947
  • Village Open Data Implementation: Lesson Learned from Alang-alang Vilalge, Madura

    Muhammad Yusuf, M Kautsar Sophan, Budi Dwi Satoto, Devie Rosa Anamisa, Nurwahyu Alamsyah
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.9951
  • Development of Public Value Based E-Government Maturity Framework

    Titisari Ramadhane, Luthfi Ramadani, Lukman Abdurrahman
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.9950
  • Laboratory Testing-Based Characterization of Peat in Palangkaraya, Central Kalimantan

    Annisa Khoerani, Iskandar, Ahmad Sofyan, Tatang Sumarna, Dewi Amalia, Dewi Amalia, Suherman Sulaiman
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.9952
  • The Effect of Educational Technology on Learning Facilities on Learning Independence to Improve Learning Outcomes of Building Construction Engineering Students

    Djubir R.E. Kembuan, Metsi Daud, Titof Tulaka
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.9956
  • Streamlining Medical Services: A Virtual Chatbot for Stomach- related Illnesses

    Tresna Maulana Fahrudin, Angela Lisanthoni, Prismahardi Aji Riyantoko, Kartika Maulida Hindrayani, Dwi Arman Prasetya
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.9957
  • Application of Fuzzy Inference System Takagi-Sugeno Methods for Diagnosis of Diseases and Pests of Madura Paddy Rice Based on Symptoms

    Devie Rosa Anamisa, Budi Dwi Satoto, Muhammad Yusuf, Moch. Kautsar Sophan, Fifin Ayu Mufarroha
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.9958
  • The Interactive Multimedia Learning Application for Visual Communication Classroom

    Arje Cerullo Djamen, Johan Reimon Batmetan
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.9960
  • Exploring Students’ Acceptance Level of Learning Management System (LMS) as E-learning Platform using Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) at Manado State University

    Keith Francis Ratumbuisang, Yosua Fitsgerald Ratumbuisang, Djubir Ruslan Eddy Kembuan, Johan Reimon Batmetan, Merriam Modeong
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.9961
  • Optimizing K-Means Clustering: A Comparative Study of Optimization Algorithms For Convergence And Efficiency

    Alfiansyah Hasibuan, Djubir R.E. Kembuan, Vivi Peggie Rantung, Medi Hermanto Tinambunan
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.9962
  • Smart Grid Study As Solution To The Challenges Of Electricity Transmission And Distribution In North Sulawesi

    I Gede Budi Mahendra, Djubir R.E. Kembuan, Janne Deivy Ticoh, Billy Killis, Djami Olii
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.9963
  • A Conceptual Framework for e-Commerce Personalization in Small Medium Enterprise’s

    Johan Reimon Batmetan, Trudi Komansilan, Sondy C Kumajas
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.9964
  • Comparative Analysis of Prediction Results of Decision Support Systems Simple Additive Weighting Method with Preference Selection Index in Determining Scholarship Recipients

    Medi Hermanto Tinambunan, Djubir R.E. Kembuan, Vivi Peggie Rantung, Alfiansyah Hasibuan
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.9965
  • Distinctive Features and Design for Mathematics Learning Mobile Games in Elementary School Students

    Gilly Marlya Tiwow, Djubir R E Kembuan, J R Batmetan
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.9966
  • One Line Plus Soft Keyboard Layout for Smartwatches Text Entry

    Eka Prakarsa Mandyartha, Fawwaz Ali Akbar, Auliya Arkhan
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.9967
  • Oversampled-Based Approach to Overcome Imbalance Data in the Classification of Apple Leaf Disease with SMOTE

    Eva Y Puspaningrum, Yisti Vita Via, Chilyatun Nisa, Hendra Maulana, Wahyu S.J.Saputra
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.9968
  • An Approach for Automatic Generating RESTFul API Code based on SQL DDL Code

    Fawwaz Ali Akbar, Eka Prakarsa Mandyartha, Hendra Maulana
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.9969
  • Neural Network Classification in Javanese Handwriting Recognition using Projection Profile Histogram and Local Binary Pattern Histogram

    Fetty Tri Anggraeny, Yisti Vita Via, Retno Mumpuni, Heliza Rahmania Hatta, Narti Eka Putri, Joni Bastian
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.9970
  • Early Prediction for Graduation of Private High School Students with Machine Learning Approach

    Kartini, Fetty Tri Anggraeny, Aang Kisnu Darmawan, Anik Anekawati, Ivana Yudhisari
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.9971
  • Use of Patterned Datasets (Minimum and Maximum) to predict Bitcoin and Ethereum price movements

    Rizky Parlika, Mustafid, Basuki Rahmat
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.9972
  • Object Localization and Detecting Alphabet in Sign Language BISINDO Using Convolution Neural Network

    Yisti Vita Via, Wahyu S. J. Saputra, Mohammad Idham Fachrurrozi, Eva Yulia Puspaningrum, Fetty Tri Anggraeny, Salamun Rohman Nudin
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.9973
  • Use of Lactobacillus Bacteria to Degrade Oil and Grease in Restaurant Wastewater

    Novirina Hendrasarie, Syahrul Romadon, RKH Putro, Aussie A.
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.9974
  • Review of the Implementation of the Concept of Sustainable Tourism on the Manado Bay

    Felly Ferol Warouw, Sonny Davy Mailangkay, Djubir Kembuan, Telly Tangkere, Lady Grace Jane Giroth
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.9975
  • The Effect of Image Size on the Deep Learning Approach for Classifying Covid-19 Pneumonia

    Budi Nugroho, Anny Yuniarti
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.9976
  • Multinomial Optimization of Naïve Bayes Through the Implementation of Particle Swarm Optimization

    Made Hanindia Prami Swari, Dio Farrel Putra Rachmawan, Chrystia Aji Putra
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.9977
  • Sales Product Clustering Using RFM Calculation Model And K-Means Algorithm on Primskystore

    Agussalim, Rahayu Kusumaningtyas Paramita Wardhani, Amalia Anjani
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.9978
  • Implementation Of Android-Based Fish Detection & Recognition System Using Convolutional Neural Network Method

    Faikul Umam, Ach. Dafid
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.9979
  • Expert System to Diagnose Diseases in Corn Plant Using Mobile-Based Forward Chaining And Certainty Factor Methods

    Hanifudin Sukri, Firmansyah Adiputra
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.9980
  • User Interface Design for Grab Merchant Application Version 4.18.0 with Usability Approach

    Weny Fdiasindiastuti, Ari Basuki, Rullie Annisa, Fitri Agustina, Faikul Umam, Retno Indiartiningtias
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.9981
  • Optimization Dragline on Parameter and Gas Cutting of Laser Beam Machining in SS400 Steel using Taguchi L16 Methods

    Rifky Yusron, Bambang Tjiroso, Kukuh Winarso
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.9982
  • Developing Human Hand Gesture Data

    Muhammad Fuad, Sri Wahyuni, Nuniek Fahriani, Ilham Nurwahyudi, Mochammad Ilham Darmawan, Fahmi Maulana
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.9983
  • Determining Student Achievements using Multicriteria Approach with Electre Method

    Achmad Jauhari, Yudha Dwi Putra Negara, Faisol Arif Efendi, Fifin Ayu Mufarroha, Devie Rosa Anamisa, Abdullah Basuki
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.9984
  • Quality Assurance of Academic Websites using Performance Testing Tools

    Fifin Ayu Mufarroha, Ahmad Farisul Haq, Arifatul Maghfiroh, Devie Rosa Anamisa, Ahmad Afif Supianto, Achmad Jauhari
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.9985
  • Design and Implementation of Tourism News Information Retrieval System using Modified Cosine Similarity

    Ika Oktavia Suzanti, Husni, Biru Sultan Awaldhia, Mohammad Syarief
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.9986
  • Experimental Investigation of a Convection - Improved Solar Salt Evaporation System

    Nizar Amir, Makhfud Efendy, Mohd Nazri Latiff Azmi
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.9987
  • Sentiment Analysis of Madura Tourism Opinion Using Support Vector Machine (SVM)

    Doni Abdul Fatah, Eka Mala Sari Rochman, Fajrul Ihsan Kamil, Ahmad Su’ud
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.9988
  • Classification of coastal shrimp species using deep learning InceptionResNetV2 with data augmentation

    Budi Dwi Satoto, Bain Khusnul Khotimah, Mohammad Yusuf, Rinci Kembang Hapsari, Budi Irmawati
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.9989
  • SakeraHerbDB Proposing an Integrated Indonesian Traditional Herbal Medicine Database IITHMDB for Madura Islands Herbs

    Muhammad Yusuf, M Kautsar Sophan, Aang Kisnu Darmawan, Devie Rosa Anamisa, Budi Dwi Satoto, Nurwahyu Alamsyah
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.9995
  • Analysis And Improvement Of Drug Supply Chain Risk Management Using House Of Risk (HOR) And Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) Approaches

    Ernaning Widiaswanti, Heri Awalul Ilhamsah, Rahmad Faizal
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.9996
  • Lung Cancer Classification Using Random Oversampling and Gradient Boosted Decision Tree

    Wahyudi Setiawan, Yoga Dwitya Pramudita, Mulaab
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.9997
  • Implementation of A*(Star) Algorithm in Robots Object Movement

    Ahmad Sahru Romadhon, Vivi Tri Widyaningrum, Ach. Dafid
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.9998
  • Design and simulation of rectangular patch microstrip antenna with inset feed for ADS-B system

    Muttaqin Hardiwansyah, Dian Neipa Purnamasari
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.9999
  • Design a Data Acquisition System on Deflection Test Equipment

    Teguh Prasetyo, Hakam Muzakki, M Nur Rajab Zainal A
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.10000
  • The Green Production Strategy for the Small and Medium Size Enterprises of The Leather Sandal

    Issa Dyah Utami, Ika Deefi Anna, Wulan Puspitasari
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.10001
  • Classification of Diseases on Corn Stalks using a Random Forest based on a Combination of the Feature Extraction (Local Binary Pattern and Color Histogram)

    Aeri Rachmad, Nachnul Ansori, Silfia Rifka, Eka Mala Sari Rochman, Hermawan, Husni, Wahyudi Setiawan
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.10002
  • Multiphase Flow Analysis of Three-Dimensional Journal Bearing with Roughness Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)

    S Susilowati, Silvana Dwi Nurherdiana, Sukirmiyadi, Erwan Adi Saputro, Mohammad Tauviqirrahman, Dani Arfiandani, Paryanto
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.10003
  • Study of Flakes from Protein-Rich Flour and Essential Oils For Stunting Sufferers

    Dedin Finatsiyatull Rosida, Sri Winarti, Nurul Firdausy
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.10004
  • Designing Supply Chain Resilience with a Quality Function Deployment Approach: A Case Study in a Shipping Line Company

    Dira Ernawati, Isna Nugraha, Ni Ketut Sari
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.10005
  • Phosphate removal from wastewater for the manufacture of struvite fertilizer

    Dyah Suci Perwitasari, Nur Aini Fauziyah, Pardi Sampe Tola, Stefanus Muryanto, Jamari Jamari, Athanasius Priharyoto Bayuseno
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.10006
  • Activated Carbon Coconut Shell as Base of Anode Battery: A Review

    Erwan Adi Saputro, Sukirmiyad, Susilowati, Silvana Dwi Nurherdiana, Diana Silvia Rahma Wardhani, Kirana Aurelia Salshabila, Nurten Sahan
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.10007
  • Analysis of Line Balancing using Ranked Positional Weight (RPW), Largest Candidate Rule (LCR), and J-Wagon Methods in Crane Girder Production at PT MHE Demag Surabaya, Indonesia

    Farida Pulansari, Isna Nugraha
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.10008
  • Analysis of Total Suspended Solid Algorithm on Tuban Coast with 2 Channel Approach of Visible Light Wavelength Satellite Image

    Hendrata Wibisana, Bagas Aryaseta, Primasari Cahya Wardhani
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.10009
  • Aesthetics Skylines in Manado

    Desty Rara Retna Kalude, Djubir Ruslan Eddy Kembuan, Keith Francis Ratumbuisang
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.10010
  • Characteristics Physicochemical and Determination Formaldehyde of Yellow Tofu at Kediri Regency

    Jariyah, Andre Yusuf Trisna Putra, Rosita Dwi Agustin
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.10011
  • Potential of Biomass Briquettes from Tropical Fruit Waste (Study Case: Durian Skin)

    Praditya S. A. Sitogasa, Mohamad Mirwan, Firra Rosariawari
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.10012
  • Analysis of Carbon Functional Groups through FTIR Patterns in The Preparation of Reduced Graphene Oxide (RGO)

    Nur Aini Fauziyah, Dona Avrilia Kristanti, Putri Catur Kusumaningtyas, Primasari Cahya Wardhani, Pardi Sampe Tola, Teuku Andi Fadly
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.10013
  • A Mini Review: Preliminary Study of Bio-Medical Physics on Development of FRRS to Reduce Pain After Heavy Activities

    Primasari Cahya Wardhani, Nur Aini Fauziyah, Pardi Sampe Tola, Zakiyah Dania Billah
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.10014
  • The effect of drying time on the characteristics of Bandeng Sapit during storage at room temperature

    Ratna Yulistiani, Sri Winarti, Erwan Adi Saputro, Fadllur Rohmawati
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.10015
  • Environmental Impact Analysis of Methane Gas from Landfill using LCA in Klotok landfill, Kediri, East Java

    Restu Hikmah Ayu Murti, Muhammad Abdus Salam Jawwad, Syadzadhiya Qothrunada Zakiyayasin Nisa, Rizka Novembrianto
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.10016
  • Utilization of pineapple cobs and peels for fruit leather processing

    Rosida, Ulya Sarofa, Anggraeni Putri Pertiwi
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.10017
  • Production Planning and Control of Flooring Using Aggregate Planning Method

    Rusindiyanto, Rr. Rochmoeljati, Yekti Condro Winursito, Isna Nugraha, Hafid Syaifullah
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.10018
  • Crystallography Analysis on LSCF and LSM-based Perovskite Oxides

    Silvana Dwi Nurherdiana, Nikmatin Sholichah, Susilowati, Sukirmiyadi, Erwan Adi Saputro, Mohd Jumain Jalil, Hamzah Fansuri
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.10019
  • Mental Workload Analysis of Workers Using the Swedish Occupational Fatigue Index (SOFI) Method at A Job Shop, Sheet Metal, And Pipe Metal Manufacturing Company in Surabaya

    Mochammad Tutuk Safirin, Mega Islami, Rizqi Sari, Sinta Dewi, Enny Aryanny
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.10020
  • The Influence of Hard Skills K3, Soft Skills and Work Environment on the Behavior of Implementing K3 in Welding Practices of Mechanical Engineering Study Program Students in Vocational High Schools in North Sulawesi

    Parsaoran Tamba, Hendro M. Sumual
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.10021
  • Phytoplankton Analysis and Mapping in Tuban Coastal Based on Chlorophyll-A Concentration Value Using Terra Modis Satellite Imagery

    Siti Zainab, Novie Handajani, Minarni Nur Trilita, Primasari Cahya Wardhani
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.10022
  • Enhancing Seawater Salinity through Spray-Assisted Evaporation: Investigating the Effect of Nozzle Sprayer Diameter and Feed Flowrate on Evaporation Rate using Multiple Regression Analysis

    Lilik Suprianti, Nove Kartika Erliyanti, Soemargono Soemargono, Yehezkiel Hesed Providensia, Stefanus Dady Waluyo
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.10023
  • Study of Statistical Quality Control (SQC) Methods in Analyzing Quality Control of Paving Block Products at PT. X

    Sumiati, Nur Rahmawati, Tranggono, Dwi Sukma Donoriyanto, Minto Waluyo
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.10025
  • Alternatif Design of Compliant Mechanism Based Ankle Foot Prosthesis

    Wahyu Dwi Lestari, Ndaru Adyono, Ahmad Khairul Faizin, Dhian Satria Yudha Kartika, Tri Lathif Mardi Suryanto, E I Bhiftime
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.10026
  • A Guideline of Earned Value Method (EVM) Implementation as Decision Baseline on Acceleration Solutions for Construction Project Scheduling

    Zetta Rasullia Kamandang, I Nyoman Dita Pahang Putra, Anna Rumintang Nauli
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.10027
  • Effect of the Carbon Source on the Characteristics of Silica-carbon as a Handphone’s Case Material

    Srie Muljani, Erwan Adi Saputro, Kusuma Wardhani Mas’udah, Syuaibatul Islamiyah
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.10028
  • Solar Tracker Design Based on Arduino Nano to Improve Solar Energy Efficiency

    Anderias Henukh, Amzal Heri, Algiranto, Merta Simbolon
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.10029
  • Vegetation Function Analysis in Musamus University Campus Area

    Maichel Santo W. Mita, Atiza Nurhuzna, Yohannes Putra P. Sinambela, Reivandi Christal Joenso
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.10031
  • Development of Structural Materials and House Construction in Merauke

    Anton Topan, Biatma Syanjayanta, Saliki, Maichel S. Wijaya Mita, Aldi M. Amar Makruf
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.10032
  • Heat Absorption On Walls With Red Brick Material

    Muchlis Alahudin, Anton Topan, Yosi Valentina Simorangkir, Henry Soleman Raubaba
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.10033
  • Development of Wall Material Usage in Merauke

    Yosi Valentina Simorangkir, Anton Topan, Muchlis Alahudin, Henry Soleman Raubaba, Tiyans Syahrul Ivandy
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.10034
  • Antioxidant properties of Carallia brachiata stem bark and leaf

    Yenni Pintauli Pasaribu, Yorinda Buyang, Novike Bela Sumanik, La Hisa, Johanis Wairata
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.10035
  • The influence of addition maja fruit peel extract as inhibitor on the corrosion rate of stainless steel and carbon steel

    Sintha Soraya Santi, Ika Nawang Puspitawati, Kindriari Nurma Wahyusi, Siti Mariyatul Azizah, Kevin Nahila Wahyu Ranawijaya
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.47577/technium.v16i.10162